Which side will you be on?: The 50th anniversary of Lindsay Anderson's If....
Lindsay Anderson's If.... has returned to cinema's for it's 50th anniversary and I was very excited to catch it on the big-screen - in a evocatively worn 35mm print - recently at the GFT as part of their Spirit of 68 season.
On it's London premiere, in December 1968, the film looked to have bottled the fevered mood of the moment. It formed part of artistic statements that seemed to have the heavy shadows of the year's new stories at every turn, work such as Norman Mailer's The Armies of the Night in literature, Nigel Kneale's The Year of the Sex Olympics on UK television and, in white-hot run of album releases, The Beatles (AKA The White Album), Beggars Banquet, Waiting for the Sun and Electric Ladyland. This was creative that seemed to complement the turbulent 12 months that had seen student protests in America against the ongoing war in Vietnam, the May civil unrest by protesting students and striking workers in opposition with President de Gaulle's riot police, the Soviet Union's clashes in ruling Czechoslavakia and protests in spots as diverse as West Germany, Italy and Mexico.1
"Once again assembled..."
Roger Livesey in Powell & Pressburger's The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp.
Malcolm McDowell as Mick Travis in If....
In the late 90's/early noughties, late-night film scheduling on BBC2 was extremely formative, a sort of de facto film school. The first time I saw If.... was a late-night screening and watching it's bold and fresh approach to the school days theme and it's haunting final shot, was a very powerful experience and made me excited about investigating the more bold, adventurous film-making in British film history. For me, Lindsay Anderson will always be mentally tied to Powell & Pressburger. There is something shared in their dream-like visions of England, their fussiness and the heightened mood of the storytelling.
Having been a co-founder of the 'Free Cinema' documentary movement in the previous decade, and been a key figure in CND, bohemian and Sight & Sound Magazine circles, Lindsay Anderson had followed his peer Karel Reisz in making a wider impact in the popular consciousness with a kitchen sink drama. Anderson's was This Sporting Life, featuring a working-class rugby player protagonist. This followed Reisz's earlier Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, which had kick-started this new voice - and trend - of British cinema. Anderson described Saturday Night and Sunday Morning as having 'changed the face of the British cinema overnight...it opened doors that had been nailed fast for 50 years.'2 I feel that Reisz's film has an energy that the clumsier This Sporting Life can't match when watched in a modern context. During the making of The White Bus, his short form follow-up to This Sporting Life, Anderson was nurturing his next feature-length project.
Originally named Crusaders, David Sherwin's script had been shopped around since 1960. Anderson read it in 1966, and Sherwin's original co-writer John Howlett was otherwise engaged. This resulted in Sherwin and Anderson finessing the script towards a shooting draft. Sherwin and Anderson took courage from the 1933 short Zéro de conduite, directed by Jean Vigo. Contrasting the repressiveness of the school system with Vigo's artistic visual flair, it set a tone and imagery in Anderson's mind. If.... would be far removed from deferential school-set tales with staid teacher-knows-best 'inspirational' plotting.
In the meantime, funding promised by CBS fell through, especially demoralising for the crew as pre-production had started. Albert Finney, having made his name in Saturday Night and Sunday Morning and having been directed by Anderson (the West End play of Billy Liar), used industry connections at Paramount to get the budget - with Finney's production company Memorial Enterprises the production company.3
Child's play: Jean Vigo's Zéro de conduite, a key influence on Lindsay Anderson.
Crucially, for the tone that Anderson and Sherwin were looking to capture, Miroslav Ondricek was hired as Cinematographer - he'd previously shot The White Bus and was described by Anderson as a 'cherished collaborator'4 - and the Czech had established his reputation for the cinematography in Miloš Forman's internationally acclaimed Loves of a Blonde and The Fireman's Ball. Ondricek joining the production wasn't without hitches - getting his visa approved was time-consuming and involved Anderson's intervention5 - but when he did arrive, his outsider's perspective contrasting well with Sherwin and Anderson's insider knowledge.
Filming took place predominately at Anderson's alma mater Cheltenham College. Shrewdly, to gain the co-operation of the school, a 'dummy' script was drawn up that removed references to the aggression, homosexuality and guns that the shooting script included and would have jeopardised the location agreement. This pitched the film as a 'poetic, humorous view of life seen through the eyes of the boys'.6
Instead, the film would be the channeling of Anderson's and Sherwin's anger at the school system, at the paternalistic powers that bring the dreamers, or indeed Crusaders, into line and yet, McDowell later stated that 'only a man who loved his school and loved England could have made a film like If....'7
If.... was being prepared after the Hollywood investment in Swinging London films was being wound down, and would form the last wave of the decade's key British films that saw a shift in mood and tone, to being more confrontational. This would be expressed either in experimental style (Ken Russell's crossover from cutting-edge television work to the big-screen) or in the film that perhaps closely resembles the intentions of If.... - Tony Richardson's version of The Charge of the Light Brigade, which looked to create the connotations of Britain's Empirical failure with the contemporary American involvement in Vietnam. In the finer moments of Richardson's film - the performances particularly of Trevor Howard, John Geilguid and Harry Andrews, Charles Wood's satirical dialogue - it does push towards this aim, but it's a loose, unfocused canvas. Reviewing the film under the headline 'Carry On, Cardigan', critic Michael Billington wrote that the film lacks 'is dramatic weight: instead of dealing a death blow to Victorian military stupidity, it offers a series of quick, nervous jabs to the body.'8 It would take If.... to successfully combine the surreal-tinged Sixties pop culture, the attacks on the class system and the training the establishment gave to underlings.
RITUAL AND ROMANCE
Christine Noonan is The Girl.
Is the whole film a dream? There are memories of school days, at times poignantly hyper-real, such as the early scenes of Jute (played by Sean Bury) trying to find his way around the school alongside scenes of lyrical beauty such as McDowell seeing The Girl (played by Christine Noonan) from an opposite window at the school; a school she doesn't attend. In changing the title from Crusaders to If...., David Thomson acutely wrote that 'the three dots added to the title can stand for the threshold to fantasy, or an encouragement to everyone to keep hoping that the walls come tumbling down one day'.9 Anderson later made a similar amend to the film that reunited him with Sherwin and McDowell, as related by McDowell himself:
'David Sherwin and I were sitting in the pub trying to think of a title for the script...we came up with 'Lucky Man'. When we, in our excitement, told Lindsay the idea, there was a long pause after which he said 'O Lucky Man!', and grinned sardonically. With one word, Lindsay had given us a magical epic title for our film which took it out of the bounds of naturalism altogether.'10
Looking back on the shoot 25 years later, Ondricek told the BBC series Hollywood U.K. that Anderson wanted the film to look 'natural and fantastic at the same time'11 and romantic and rebellious flourishes were the attraction to Anderson, as well as the directly relatable nature of the setting and characters. Those moments of lyrical beauty remains very striking such as a pupil stargazing out of a window with McDowell, an acrobatic feat of gymnastics and the school itself standing unconcerned by the passage of time on a brisk, bright spring morning.
This contrast of straining against the firm lines laid out by the School, is subtly expressed in Marc Wilkinson's score. Wilkinson would go on to score The Blood on Satan's Claw to more overtly striking effect, but his original music is a strong complement to the tone being conjured in If...., perhaps it's a shame that Anderson and Wilkinson didn't collaborate after this. To further enhance the romantic nature of Anderson and Sherwin's vision of their Crusaders, shrewd use is made of Sanctus by Missa Luba, an African rendition of Latin Mass. In using this, Anderson was perhaps inspired by Pier Paolo Pasolini's 1964 film The Gospel According to Matthew, which also used a selection from the same Missa Luba album alongside blues songs, and more traditional music cues to express a feeling of spiritual belief from different voices, from around the world. Anderson successfully uses Sanctus as an exciting, exotic, expressive song that the Crusaders views and attitude ties in with - everything the School and it's Establishment is not. It's effect on contemporary viewers was so instantaneous as to turn Sanctus into an unlikely chart hit - making the UK top 40 singles chart, peaking at no. 28 in April 1969.12
The Whips lay down the rules to the House.
In promoting If...., Anderson had spoken and written of his own fondly-remembered school days. But he also noted that 'the problems of young people and their relationship to traditions seem to be more and more important'13 and that his film 'gives you a situation and shows what happens in this particular instance when certain forces on the one side are set against certain forces on the other, without any mutual understanding...of course, I wouldn't deny that my sympathies lie on one side rather than another. But I hope that the sympathy of the film is not a narrow one'14
The pettiness of the Whips punishment of the Crusaders - for example, McDowell having to remain standing under a cold shower longer than the standard time usually dictated by the Whips - is very well expressed, tapping into viewer's own experience of restrictive, oppressive figures - either in or outside of school. Building up to the ferocious cane-beating scene in the gymnasium. McDowell, speaking in 2002, felt that the beating scene was 'honestly, the greatest sequence we shot...this kicks the film into a whole new area'15
It's also interesting to note that McDowell notes that the only time the cast ad-libbed from Anderson's precise direction was his and David Wood's improvised reaction to their wait for their turn being beaten. So proud was Anderson of the scene, that he said to McDowell afterwards 'well Malcolm, if nobody ever goes to see the film, if it's a total disaster, which I expect it to be, we can look back on this day, and on this scene, and say "jolly good work", and that from him, just made your heart jump. But it was extraordinary.'16
Jonathan Drew (Ivor Novello) plots in Hitchcock's The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog.
Mick Travis (Malcolm McDowell) hides the moustache he has grown in between terms, an act of rebellion.
In the Fifties, Anderson had been part of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Aldermaston marches, with Barry Miles noting that CND 'united the emerging London underground - art students and folk musicians, students and Hampstead intellectuals.'17 Surrealist music accompaniment was provided by the Ken Colyer's Omega Brass Band who 'dressed up in a British approximation of a New Orleans funeral band, they lifted spirits with their rousing rags and marches.'18
Anderson and Reisz were involved in producing a short film, March to Aldermaston, which is soundtracked by trad jazz of the period and captures the movement well, the bohemian expression and idealism of the moment. With vocal expression and dissension now freely expressed than at any point since the War, the satire boom was just beginning. An issue the CND movement faced at the time was a sense of perhaps preaching to the converted. For example, when Peter Cook opened his club The Establishment (so named, he joked, because everybody wants to be part of the establishment), George Melly wryly remarked that 'nobody is going to go out into Greek Street feeling more revolutionary than when they went in' and that the audience consisted of 'nice clean ladies and gentlemen of impeccable liberal principles and good SW addresses'.19
What the marches did set in motion was the discourse for the Sixties protests, with key figures of the coming decade involved - as well as the Free Cinema filmmakers, John 'Hoppy' Hopkins was the photographer closely associated with the protests. In 1966, he would be part of the team that founded the UFO nightclub and the London Free School. Poet Christopher Logue, an admirer of Anderson's films, recalled that Lindsay had been key to Logue securing his first large-scale reading (at a Free Cinema meeting at the National Film Theatre) and that the marches and CND 'was just in the air, and a lot of people thought that this was the right thing to do...It had a much greater social importance than it ever had politically. People suddenly realised that there were a lot of people who thought along the same lines as they did and that they were humanists in politics and agnostics in religion and that they did want to create a better society. And they struggled hard to do it, and they took on the whole world, as young people are prepared to do. And the result of it was ten good years.'20
Ten years later, the crucial casting of Malcolm McDowell as the rebellious Crusader figurehead Mick Travis was fortuitous. McDowell later recalled of his audition at the Shaftesbury Theatre that 'I arrived late...because I was rehearsing Twelfth Night at the Royal Court Theatre. I had run all the way. I was almost denied the reading but finally found myself on stage, out of breath, squinting across the footlights. The reading itself seemed to sneak up on me before i had time to get nervous or, as I was sometimes inclined to be at auditions, angry and on the defensive.'21
Protesting in 1958: Lindsay Anderson (front centre) with The Royal Court Theatre banner at the March to Aldermaston, Easter '58.
Protesting in 1968: Press coverage of Dany le Rouge AKA Daniel Cohn-Bendit, student leader during the Paris unrest in May '68. The New Musical Express, in previewing The Rolling Stones new music that year, dismissively wrote that Street Fighting Man was 'Danny The Red's theme song'.
Naming the lead Crusader Mick Travis gives a contemporary connotation with Mick Jagger's brief flirtation in 1968 with revolutionary attitudes, a brief phase in which Jagger declared that he was against private property, wrote the powerful and ambivalent lyrics for Street Fighting Man - that dovetailed alongside John Lennon's conflicted lyrics for The Beatles Revolution - and attended the 25,000 strong anti-Vietnam Grosvenor Square demonstrations.22 Street Fighting Man split opinion on it's release and was banned by the BBC. A month before If.... had it's premiere, the New Musical Express' Keith Altham review of Beggars Banquet included his comments that Street Fighting Man is 'Danny The Red's theme song...but maybe you were not in San Francisco or Chicago or Paris or Prague or Berlin, and maybe you think the students are just a coincidence anyway. What do you mean you can't hear the words? Can't you feel it in the air?'23
Mick Jagger at the Grosvenor Square demonstration, 17th March 1968. Photograph by Stones insider Michael Cooper.
However, for all of the ambiguity of the words in Street Fighting Man, and the unease it's imagery suggested to some, including Altham's key preview, it has stood the test of time as the song that will forever be identified with the chaos of that tumultuous year (for example, being used in Ken Burns and Lynn Novick's documentary series The Vietnam War).
Esteemed music critic Ian MacDonald sagely praised Street Fighting Man in terms that capture the song's hypnotic energy, writing that 'I love this because of Charlie Watts' behind-the-beat drumming with that huge slamming offbeat, and because the guitars sound like wire-string fanfares, and because Jagger's melody sounds like crowds surging back and forth against police lines, and because the production makes everything sound a hundred feet tall. It's just a colossally exciting record. "Dancing in the Street" redone as revolution.'24
Keith Richards reflected on this time that 'a different fog descended and much energy was around and nobody quite knew what to do with it...everybody, including me, had these vague, half-baked ideas. You know, "Things are changing." "Yeah, but for what, for where?" It was getting political in 1968, no way to avoid that. It was getting nasty too. Heads were getting beaten...Then it became a "them against us" sort of thing'.25
FORTH TO WAR
Mick, Johnny and Wallace confront the Chaplain.
Built into the building tension between the Crusaders and the School's Establishment is the surrealism that seems to recall Spike Milligan's productive work, such as Q5 and Puckoon, earlier in the 1960's and preface Monty Python's Flying Circus (which would debut on the BBC the following year) - especially the scenes with the Chaplin shown as being stored in a slide-out drawer within the Headmaster's office. This contrasts well with the naturalistic colour palette of the film. Anderson, writing for the film's publicity notes, said that 'I would call If.... a realistic film - not completely naturalistic, but trying to penetrate the reality of it's particular world. I think Brecht said that realism didn't show what things really "look like" but how they really are. Interestingly, too, I think that the events which have been happening in the world around us as we shot our film suggest that, in working on the script more than eighteen months ago, David Sherwin and I were being, to some extent, prophetic.'26
The cast capture the tone perfectly - not sliding into the grotesque of Anderson's later Britannia Hospital - and McDowell's laconic swagger and malice reminds me of another character named Mick in a key work of the decade - Harold Pinter's The Caretaker. McDowell would have been a great fit for the Pinter character's loaded questioning ('Sleep well?) of Davies, the tramp who is being lined up for the titular occupation. The monologues that Pinter gives Mick (played by Alan Bates in it's premiere run and it's 1964 filmed version) is tinged with surrealism that also chimes with If.... and it feels that both Mick's are toying with the people the speak to, bored by conventional speech rhythms. For example, not long after having disturbed Davies, Mick properly introduces himself with the below monologue - that could be Mick Travis dialogue if reconfigured to one of the teacher's at his school:
You remind me of my uncle's brother. He was always on the move, that man. Never without his passport. Had an eye for the girls. Very much your build. Bit of an athlete. Long-jump specialist. He had a habit of demonstrating different run-ups in the drawing-room round Christmas time. Had a penchant for nuts. That's what it was. Nothing else but a penchant for nuts. Couldn't eat enough of them. Peanuts, walnuts, brazil nuts, monkey nuts, wouldn't touch a piece of fruit cake. Had a marvellous stop-watch. Picked it up in Hong Kong. The day after they chucked him out of the Salvation Army. Used to go in number four for Beckenham Reserves. That was before he got his Gold Medal. Had a funny habit of carrying his fiddle on his back. Like a papoose. I think there was a bit of the Red Indian in him. To be honest, I've never made out how he came to be my Uncle's brother. I've often thought that maybe it was the other way round. I mean that my Uncle was his brother and he was my uncle. But I never called him uncle. As a matter of fact I called him Sid. My Mother called him Sid too. It was a funny business. Your spitting image he was. Married a Chinaman and went to Jamaica.
I hope you slept well last night. 27
Paris, May 1968.
"One man can change the world with a bullet in the right place"
Fleet Street critic Felix Barker wrote that the film 'caught with terrifying skill, the atmospher of these sacred institutions. Back to my nostrils came that sickening smell of ink and chalk, the stale food from the dining room. With a shiver I recalled the implacable authority of prefects whose powers cannot be questioned and whose blows must not be complained about.'28
Time magazine's Stefan Kanfer placed If.... among the 'pick of the litter' that had lifted the end-of-era gloom; '1969 was a year of some wretched, boring work. Yet there were at least eight films which aroused enough praise and/or controversy to defend the year, and just possibly, the decade.'29
Those eight films referred to by Kanfer are the choices at the end of the year by the members of the National Society of Film Critics and were, Costa-Gavras' political thriller Z; Easy Rider; the societal satire of Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice, Arthur Penn's near-forgotten Alice's Restaurant; Midnight Cowboy; the movie adaption of Philip Roth's Goodbye, Columbus and They Shoot Horses, Don't They?
Arthur Schlesinger Jr, special assistant to both JFK and RFK, wrote in his Vogue review that 'If.... is a brilliant and disturbing film. The prefects are the old ruling group, continuing to give nineteenth-century orders in a new world of aspiration and anger. The headmaster is a voice of contemporary liberalism, complacent and ineffectual. The rebels are the young anywhere, eventually driven mad by the irrationality and inhumanity of the system. However, If.... bestows no maudlin blessing on revolutionary violence. It's mood is clinical rather than sentimental, and it is infinitely more powerful for that reason.'30
A negative voice was Pauline Kael, writing in the pages of The New Yorker, who felt that the film paled in comparison to it's primary Zéro de conduite influence:
'Anderson is skilful at scenes of sadism, but when he wants to suggest that his nonconformist heroes have some of the joy of life that the others haven't, he becomes as banal as a TV director and shows them speeding lyrically through the green countryside on a stolen motorcycle...Anderson seems to have lost sight of what was so apparent in Vigo's view, and what was so funny in it - that school is a child's mirror of society. Vigo's vision was a comic metaphor; Anderson's movie has no wings, and his literal-mindedness about the school leads to the climax of shooting up the people in the school.'31
Kael also noted that Variety had reported that Paramount had employed their in-house 'scientific group' to promote the film, with the aim of a high-brow cross-over hit along the lines of Zeffirelli's Romeo and Juliet. The group had reported that If.... was 'unusual in that [the film] was treated as a news event away from the usual coverage of motion pictures'.32
The film made profit at the box-office and, was highly thought of in the industry. Stanley Kubrick cast McDowell as Alex DeLarge in A Clockwork Orange because of his performance as Mick and McDowell credits Anderson with helping shape his performance in the Kubrick film by advising he portray the rebellious and contemptuous performance from the If.... school gym scene. In May 1969, If.... beat out Easy Rider and Karel Reisz's Isadora - among others - to the Palme d'or at Cannes. The festival had infamously been cancelled the year before due to the riots that If.... had anticipated and the film's victory was against the backdrop of the British ambassador declaring it an insult to his home nation. David Wood, who plays the Crusader Johnny, was told by a friend based in France that 'if you were to go down the Champs-Élysées now, you would be mobbed, because it's on at about six cinemas simultaneously.'33
In essence, this powerful bottling of the atmosphere of 1968 is why If.... will stand the test of time, just in the same way that the 'colossally exciting' Street Fighting Man can powerfully summon the provocative, us-or-them battles being fought across the world. Introducing If.... in 1987 at the NFT, writer Peter Cowie recalls Anderson giving a speech that hit out at the Reagan-Thatcher era, concluding that 'the sixties remain both a threat and a reproach to the eighties'.34
The final shot of If...., preserves Malcolm McDowell in a continuous loop, assembled by editor Ian Rakoff from outtakes to capture the closing image that Lindsay Anderson sought. Perhaps alongside the finale of The Sopranos, it shows us the hero and a cut to black before we view his on-screen defeat and death. Cue that enigmatic title and the beatific healing sounds of Sanctus...
Cannes, May 1969: Lindsay Anderson is presented the Palme d'Or by Claudia Cardinale.
1 Dominic Sandbrook, White Heat: A History of Britain in the Swinging Sixties (Abacus, 2006), p. 522.
2 Lindsay Anderson quoted in Barry Miles, Paul McCartney: Many Years from Now (Secker & Warburg, 1997), p. 99.
3 Ali Catterall and Simon Wells, Your Face Here: British Cult Movies Since the Sixties (Fourth Estate, 2001), p. 42.
4 Lindsay Anderson quoted in Ann Lloyd, ed., Movies of the Sixties (Orbis, 1983), p. 92.
5 Hollywood U.K. - British Cinema in the Sixties: Part 3 - A Very British Picture 1993, video recording, BBC, UK. Anderson can be seen making the case for Ondricek's visa application at 43:30 approx. Online clip available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QMEjDQKkKY
6 Ali Catterall and Simon Wells, Your Face Here: British Cult Movies Since the Sixties (Fourth Estate, 2001), p. 45.
7 Malcolm McDowell quoted in Ann Lloyd, ed., Movies of the Sixties (Orbis, 1983), p. 91.
8 David Thomson, Have You Seen...? (Penguin 2008), p. 390.
9 Michael Billington, Carry On, Cardigan, from The Illustrated London News (April 27th, 1968) p.26. Retrieved online from British Newspaper Archive at https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0001578/19680427/064/0025
10 Malcolm McDowell quoted in Ann Lloyd, ed., Movies of the Sixties (Orbis, 1983), p. 91.
11 Hollywood U.K. - British Cinema in the Sixties: Part 3 - A Very British Picture 1993, video recording, BBC, UK. Online clip available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QMEjDQKkKY
12 Official Singles Chart Top 49 09 April 1969 - 15 April 1969, retrieved from https://www.officialcharts.com/charts/singles-chart/19690409/7501/
13 Lindsay Anderson, Lindsay Anderson on Lindsay Anderson 1968, reprinted in If... Blu-ray booklet (Eureka Entertainment, 2014), p. 40.
14 Lindsay Anderson, Lindsay Anderson on Lindsay Anderson 1968, reprinted in If... Blu-ray booklet (Eureka Entertainment, 2014), p. 40-41.
15 Malcolm McDowell audio commentary, If... Blu-ray (Eureka Entertainment, 2014), 68min mark approx.
16 Malcolm McDowell audio commentary, If... Blu-ray (Eureka Entertainment, 2014), 71min mark approx.
17 Barry Miles, London Calling: A Countercultural History of London since 1945 (Atlantic Books, 2010), p. 118.
18 Jon Savage, 1966: The Year the Decade Exploded (Faber & Faber, 2015), p. 15.
19 George Melly quoted in David Kynaston, Modernity Britain: A Shake of the Dice, 1959-62 (Bloomsbury, 2014), p. 340.
20 Christopher Logue quoted in Jonathon Green, Days in the Life: Voices from the English Underground 1961-1971 (Heinemann/Minerva, 1989), p. 5-6.
21 Malcolm McDowell quoted in Ann Lloyd, ed., Movies of the Sixties (Orbis, 1983), p. 91.
22 Ian MacDonald, Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (Pimlico, 2005), p. 285.
23 Keith Altham, Cowboy Songs, New Musical Express, 23rd November 1968, p.16; quoted in NME Originals: The Rolling Stones (IPC, 2003), p.113.
24 Ian MacDonald, Uncut magazine issue 56 (IPC Media, 2001), p.74.
25 Keith Richards with James Fox, Life (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2010), p. 250.
26 Lindsay Anderson, Lindsay Anderson on Lindsay Anderson 1968, reprinted in If... Blu-ray booklet (Eureka Entertainment, 2014), p. 40.
27 Harold Pinter, The Caretaker (Eyre Methuen, reprinted 1978), p. 31.
28 Felix Barker, It (sic) pitches a hand-grenade at the public schools, Liverpool Echo 21/12/68 (Trinity Mirror, 1968). Retrieved from original at https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000271/19681221/053/0014
29 Stefan Kanfer, quoted in Joseph Morgenstern and Stefan Kanfer, eds., Film 69/70 (Simon and Schuster, 1970), p. 26.
- Malcolm McDowell quoted in Ann Lloyd, ed., Movies of the Sixties (Orbis, 1983), p. 91.
- Hollywood U.K. - British Cinema in the Sixties: Part 3 - A Very British Picture 1993, video recording, BBC, UK.
30 Arthur Schlesinger Jr., quoted in Joseph Morgenstern and Stefan Kanfer, eds., Film 69/70 (Simon and Schuster, 1970), p. 84.
31 Pauline Kael, School Days, School Days, quoted in Joseph Morgenstern and Stefan Kanfer, eds., Film 69/70 (Simon and Schuster, 1970), p. 90.
32 Pauline Kael, School Days, School Days, quoted in Joseph Morgenstern and Stefan Kanfer, eds., Film 69/70 (Simon and Schuster, 1970), p. 90.
33 David Wood, quoted in Ali Catterall and Simon Wells, Your Face Here: British Cult Movies Since the Sixties (Fourth Estate, 2001), p. 54.
34 Peter Cowie, Lindsay Anderson's Singular Path, The Criterion Collection 14/05/14. Retrieved from original at https://www.criterion.com/current/posts/3165-lindsay-anderson-s-singular-path